W. O. PRESTON. COUPLING FOR ELECTRIC OQNDUGTORS. No. 465,202. zPatented Dee. 15, 1891,
- 'UNITED STAT-ES PATENT O FIC WILLIAM c. PREsToN, OF PRovIDENoE, RHODE ISLAND, AssreNoR or ONE- HALF TO RICHARD A. BRIGHT, OF SAME PLACE.
COUPLING FOR ELECTRIC CONDUCTORS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 465,202, dated December 15, 1891.
Application filed April 27, 1891- Serial No. 390,653. (No model.)
' To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, WILLIAM G. PREsToN, a subject of the Queen of Great Britain, residing at Providence, in the county of Providence and State of Rhode Island, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Couplings for Electric Conductors; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to lettersof reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.
My invention relates to an improved manner of coupling or uniting electric or other wires. Heretofore in conductors of this class it has been usual, so far as I am aware, particularly in copper wires having comparatively large diameters, to scarf off the adjacent ends of the wire at the place of union and then rivet the parts together. Sometimes such joints'are additionally strengthened by means of a small wire wound spirally around and longitudinally of the joint portion, the whole being finally covered with solder. A more common way, however, of forming the'joint in smaller wires is to twist the adjacent end portions of the conductor together, such joint being sometimes soldered or tinned over to insure greater efficiency. There are objections to such former couplings or joints, the most serious objection being the cost. This item of cost includes not only the time required to prepare the ends of a the conductors and unite them together, but
by forming wedge-shaped recesses, and two wedges or a bent double-ended wedge or key arranged to be introduced into said opening, the wedge portions being subsequently fiattened against the corresponding sides of the adjacent ends of the conductor and against the inclined faces of the said recesses of the sleeve. The sleeve I preferably make of high conducting material, as copper, the wedge portion being of hard bronze or even harder metal, in order'that it may be slightly embedded into the conductor in forcing the key home. The bore of the tube, as well as the sides of the wedge, may be tinned, thereby, upon theapplication of a suitable degree of heat, adapting the'parts to be sweated together and to the adjacent portions of the conductor, all as will be more fully hereinafter set forth and claimed.
In the appended drawings illustrating my invention, Figure 1 is a side elevation of the sleeve or shell. Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the bent double-ended wedge or key preparatory to being introduced into the sleeve. Fig. 3 is a perspective view showingthe wedge flattened out. Fig. 4 is a longitudinalsectional view taken through the center of the sleeve. Fig. 5 is a similar sectional view showing the relation of the sleeve, wedge, and con doctor as in use. Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken on line m m of Fig. 5. Fig. 7 is a central longitudinal sectional view showing two oppositely-introduced independent keys or wedges. Fig. 8 is a 'plan View showing my improvement applied to a four way coupling; and Fig. 9 is a side elevation of the conductor, showing it as commonly spliced.
In the drawings, Aiudicates my improved coupling in its entirety. The parts forming it are made of any suitable material or composition adapted to serve as conductors of electricity. I prefer, however, to make the sleeve portion 1) of the coupling of copper, because it possesses greater conducting'properti'es. The sleeve or casing is bored or reamed out longitudinally to snugly receive the end portions of the conductor or line-wire a. One side of the sleeve is cut through in a longitudinal direction to communicate with the bore, thereby forming a narrow slot or however, are first cast in a bent form, sub-- stantially as indicated in Fig. 2, and being nearly severed at the crown of the arch at the horizontal distance 00 between the two legs or point portions being substantially equal to the length of the outer portion of the opening 6, formed in the sleeve or casing Sometimes the keys are substantially flat and are introduced singly from opposite sides, as indicated in Fig. '7. In such case the adjacent ends or heel portions of the keys are necessarily separated a short distance.
The manner of uniting two pieces of conducting-wire a by means. of my improved coupling A is as follows: The covering. or insulation d is first peeled back or removedfrom the two end portions of the wire, after which the thus exposed parts are inserted into the sleeve with the adjacent ends thereof in substantial contact, although they may be separated, as in Fig. 7. I I next place the bent wedge or key 0 into the sleeve-opening, the ends resting upon the conductor a, (see dotted lines, Fig. 5,) after which it is flattened out by means of ahammer or in any other suitable manner, the key thus practically filling the sleeve-opening, the construction andarrangement being such that the beveled surfaces of the ends or recesses e act, in conjunction with the corresponding portions of the wedge, to force the face of the latter against the contiguous ends of the conductor,-
, the pressure thus exerted being sufficient to rigidly unite the several parts together, the key thereby thus being slightly embedded into the wires surface. In fact, I have frequently demonstratedthat thetensile strength of the conductor at the coupling A is greater than that of the wire exterior of the coupling. Practically during the insertion of the wedge, as justdescribed, the thin center pork frequently separates, thereby forming two independent keys or wedges. My reason for forming the cut 0? is to prevent too great rigidity, because if the out were absent the key could not readily accommodate itself to possible inequalities in the recesses e, with aresult that while one portion of the key might rigidly engage the corresponding end upon applying a moderate amount of force. In other words, an integral or uncut key would move endwise bodilyin a direction opposed by the least resistance. By dividing or nearly severing the key or wedge the two portions are rendered practically independent, so that each end portion is adapted to bear firmly upon its corresponding end of the wire.
In order to render the conducting properties of the coupling more efficient, I may tin the interior of the sleeve b or otherwise pre pare it, so that upon inserting the conductingwire a and keying itin place by means of the wedge or wedges and then subjecting the whole to a proper degree of heat the tin or solder is fused, thereby firmly uniting the several parts. By thus soldering or sweating the conductor to the coupling all the interior portions and joint-s are protected, thereby preventing oxidation, &c. The coupling itself may be insulated by winding a tape around it and joining it to the adjacent cov- Ierings (1, substantially as common.
, driven home.
It will be seen that the two ends-of the wedge-piece 0 (shown in Fig. 2)-are bent outwardly in opposite directions, thereby adapting the ends or prongs to be readily deflected outwardly or away from each other along the exposed surface of the end portions of the wire or conductor and into the adjacent wedge-shaped recesses upon forcing the center portion of the key downwardly, the key finally practically filling the opening. e, as hereinbefore stated. (See also Fig. 5.)
In Fig. 7 I have indicated two distinct wedges seated in the recesses e. In such case the keys are bent slightly (see dotted lines) before their introduction into the sleeve, the
keys being gradually straightened asthey are I would state here that the :casing itself forms a continuous conductor of ing secured together byrivets 'r'. f cases the joints 8 are further secured and protected by the use of solder. ment is not only wasteful of the wire itself,-
electricity by reason of the intimate contact of the two end portions of.the wire with the E interior of the casing.
I In Fig. 9 I have represented a common way of splicing of unitingelectrical conductors. In this case the adjacent ends of the wire are beveled, as at s, the two parts thus fitted be- In some Such an arrangebut it necessitates a loss of considerable time to thus prepare the parts and unite them. tion at the point 0 elongates somewhat and My improvement may be used as a coupling for three or more wires by simply changing I The center portion of the casing is provided "with radiating opening 6, constructed and arranged to receive wedge-shaped keys 0, sub- 1 stantially as before described. of the wire the other would not be in sufiil cient' contact with the opposite wire to prevent it from slipping out of the coupling of wire and having oppositely-arranged or ratdiatlng wedge-shaped recesses formed in the IIO shell, and a wedge-shaped key or keys adapted to be forced into said recesses and engage the corresponding ends of the wires.
2. A coupling or joint for uniting electric or other wires, consisting of a current-conducting sleeve or easing into which the wires are adapted to be snugly inserted endwise from opposite directions, the sleeve having a longitudinally-located opening, as 6, through its side, provided with undercut oppositelybeveled ends arranged to form wedge-shaped recesses, and a partly-severed bent key or double wedge, as 0, adapted to be introduced into the sleeve-opening and deflected outwardly into the said recesses to engage the wires,substantially as hereinbeforedescribed, and for the purpose set forth.
3. The coupling or joint for electric or other wires,subst'antiallyas hereinbefore described, consisting of a current-conducting sleeve or casing provided with oppositely-arranged or opening 6, terminating in wedge-shaped re-- cesses e, and the nearly-severed bent double key 0, adapted to be introduced into said opening and forced into the recessesto engage a parted conductor a, snugly fitting the sleeve, substantially as hereinbefore described.
In testimony whereof I have affixed my sig-fl nature in presence of two witnesses.
WILLIAM C. PRESTON.
CHARLES HANNIGAN, GEO. H. REMINGTON.